Byron Pakula and I presented yesterday on ‘Why do well designed M&E systems seldom inform decision making?’ at the 2018 Australasian Aid Conference. The presentation considered the lack of learning and decision-making in programs, as a result of weaknesses in monitoring systems. Monitoring and evaluation (M&E) is often geared more towards accountability, where monitoring data feeds into formal evaluations and reporting. But this approach does not support the rapid feedback loops required in complex settings, where a Problem-Driven Iterative (PDIA) approach is more suited. PDIA requires taking action (probe), the ability to monitor emergence in real-time (sense) and make adaptive changes (respond). The presentation ends with several tips ‘to make M&E great again’.